These, and other processes, resulted in different laws banning discrimination in the Military and with government contracts. This placed the United States government in the forefront of the legal stand for equality. Executive Order 9981 in 1948 ended segregation in the US Military.

  7.  The Pledge of Allegiance section stating, One Nation under God indivisible with liberty and justice for all, was moved into an action verb during World War II.

 Veterans, white, black, and others, fought and some, gave The Last Full Measure, the final sacrifice. Their families stood, worked and supported, this wonderful social experiment that is America.

Some see the Double Victory Campaign of blacks during World War II as against fascism overseas and racism at home. It was also a fight for the right of all humans to be treated with dignity and respect. It was a massive battle for free press, speech, free assembly, voting privileges, food, relief from sexual exploitation, compassion, and love.

ACES is dedicated to telling the comprehensive and magnificent story of the world changing event that was World War II. This is important because everything that was fought for is continually challenged.  Our Veterans and their families continue to put themselves In Harm's Way to secure Freedom. That is why, every day is Veterans Day at ACES.

 The original Parker Hall was a functional USO for black soldiers because of discrimination in the 1940s. Let it stand as an Everlasting Memorial to the power of togetherness, the possible goodness of the human spirit

ACES noted the original courage shown by the founders of the Hollywood Canteen who refused to discriminate against any Soldier based on race. All were served with dignity and respect. Some of the same entertainers were to be labeled as communist and blacklisted in the 1950s.

The NAACP, A Philip Randolph and, and others fought against discrimination in the Courts, through protests, and race riots. Their struggles helped to result in the Tuskegee Airmen, Blacks re- admitted to the Marines, black nurses, and black Commanders. Executive Order 8802 signed by President Roosevelt in 1941, ended discrimination in the Nation’s defense industry.

  1.  Democracy: promoted over heritage for Government.
  2. Blacks: accepted legally in government and Military contracts as equals and human. Progressing to the development open full-blown Civil Rights Movement for total equality on all levels.
  3. Women: encouraged to work outside the home and fulfill jobs left vacant by the men. Leading to a broader acceptance of female talent, laying the framework or the women's movement expansion in the 1960s.
  4. European dominance: challenged with the production of independent countries.                        United States: unified behind the War effort with Bond sales, canteens, and a 10% direct family involvement with the military across the country.  This reflected a patriotism against a Fascist movement that only some races were worth living, and that only one man “this strong man” should determine government processes.    
  5. Civilian support was vital.  Civilians battled in their way. From the middle-class white women that helped to start Secret Service by sacrificing their lives and their money for the freedom fighters, to the 600,000 black Rosie the Riveters that worked in the WAR effort, while being denied the dignity of a decent bathroom; civilians stood with the fight.
  6. Minorities: fought for War victory and equal acceptance.

            HEBREWS:  FOUGHT MISTRUST  Some were vilified as causing the war, but fought along with Christian, and others.            

            ASIANS: FACED DOUBT Their loyalties were questions, although Germans were NOT locked up. The Japanese, and other Asians still fought with distinction.

           HISPANICS/ LATINOS:  LANGUAGE This barrier persisted after the war and HAD to be MODIFIED for benefits! Puerto Ricans, as American citizens faced notable  discrimination.    

           NATIVE AMERICANS: HAD SOVEREIGNTY They enlisted with over 90% success with male, as well as female soldiers.  They appreciated that their independent countries would be removed by the Axis powers. 

While blacks have participated in every armed conflict in America, the BATTLE OF THE BULGE was the first legally integrated battle of the Army.  Blacks proved themselves over and over as brave and valiant Veterans. Those Veterans, and others, serve on ACES’ Board



 With the discovery of PARKER HALL, a USO for Black Veterans and their Families in 2000, ACES Veterans  Museum was created to honor BLACKS and Minorities of WWII


         The Challenge and mastery of the United States of America is the concept that all men are created equal.  While there have been historical battles to include Blacks, Native Americans, women and others, the premise was: we are equal.

 World War II is important because it was a turning point in several areas: 

ACES Veterans Museum  Annex - Pontiac, Michigan

In 2019, ACES Veterans Museum Annex was dedicated in Pontiac, Michigan.  It is co-located with the American Legion Post 20.  ACES Annex continues the original mission of ACES Veterans Museum of Philadelphia, to preserve Parker Hall, a Black USO, and to honor and remember the minority veterans of WWII.

Housed at the ACES Annex are paintings of the Native Kings.  These unique paintings show Black Veterans that served in the 761st Armored Tank Division in WWII.

H. Bill Maxey, Ret USA

Mental Health CMD


The Native Kings